20、Effective customer journey design:consumers’ conception, measurement, and consequences.pdf

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ORIGINAL EMPIRICAL RESEARCHEffective customer journey design:consumers conception,measurement,and consequencesChristina Kuehnl1&Danijel Jozic2&Christian Homburg3,4Received:13 August 2017/Accepted:10 December 2018/Published online:7 January 2019#Academy of Marketing Science 2019AbstractRecently,practitioners have begun appraising an effective customer journey design(CJD)as an important source of customervalue in increasingly complex and digitalized consumer markets.Research,however,has neither investigated what constitutesthe effectiveness of CJD from a consumer perspective nor empirically tested how it affects important variables of consumerbehavior.The authors define an effective CJD as the extent to which consumers perceive multiple brand-owned touchpoints asdesigned in a thematically cohesive,consistent,and context-sensitive way.Analyzing consumer data from studies in twocountries(4814 consumers in total),they provide evidence of the positive influence of an effective CJD on customer loyaltythrough brand attitudeover and above the effects of brand experience.Importantly,an effective CJD more strongly influencesutilitarian brand attitudes,while brand experience more strongly affects hedonic brand attitudes.These underlying mechanismsare also prevalent when testing for the contingency factors services versus goods,perceived switching costs,and brandinvolvement.Keywords Effectivecustomerjourneydesign.Touchpoints.Customerjourney.Brandexperience.ScaledevelopmentApple,A,BMW,IKEA,and Nespresso are promi-nent examples of brands that are dedicated to an effective cus-tomer journey design(CJD)by carefully applying design prin-ciples to all touchpoints they offer consumers during their cus-tomer journeys(Maechler et al.2016).Amazon,for example,has recently added a new touchpoint to its customers purchasejourneys by ordering 20,000 vans.Cohesive to Amazons valuepropositionofofferingaconvenientonlineshoppingexperience,the firm is working to build its own delivery fleet in the UnitedStates to gain more control over how its packages are deliveredto customers.Consistent with other Amazon touchpoints,thevans are stamped with Amazons smile logo,allowing for easyrecognition.Importantly,taking into account consumersspecif-ic needs and contexts,this new touchpoint allows shoppers tobetter track their packages or to see a photo of where a packagewas left if they were not at home(Pisani 2018).As the Amazon example illustrates,the proliferation oftouchpoints in todays digitally enriched markets makes man-aging the customer experience increasingly complex(Lemonand Verhoef 2016)and,if not adequately managed,couldBcontribute negatively to the brand relationship(Duncanand Moriarty 2006,p.238).Therefore,many practitionershave worked to manage and design touchpoints throughoutcustomerjourneysasbestpossible.Forexample,firmssuchasAccenture,IBM,and McKinsey invest heavily in capabilitiesthatcombinedesignthinking,marketing,and dataanalytics toplanentirecustomerjourneys(The Economist2015).Echoingthis trend,researchers have pinpointed customer journeys as anew source of customer value in the twenty-first centuryRebecca Hamilton served as Special Issue Guest Editor for this article.Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article(https:/doi.org/10.1007/s11747-018-00625-7)contains supplementarymaterial,which is available to authorized users.*Christina Kuehnlchristina.kuehnlreutlingen-university.deDanijel Jozicjozicmailbox.orgChristian Homburghomburgbwl.uni-mannheim.de1ESB Business School,Reutlingen University,72762 Reutlingen,Germany2Mainz,Germany3University of Mannheim,68131 Mannheim,Germany4University of Manchester,Manchester,UKJournal of the Academy of Marketing Science(2019)47:551568https:/doi.org/10.1007/s11747-018-00625-7(Lemon and Verhoef 2016),emphasizing that Bthe value of amore designerly approach beyond products and services implies using the customer journey(Gruber et al.2015,p.1;emphasis added).Given the relevance of customer experiences,which formthrough the perception of multiple touchpoints along customerjourneys,research has begun investigating distinct aspects ofcustomer journeys(see Table 1).However,despite the highpracticalrelevanceofthecustomerjourney,academicsandprac-titionerslackawidelyaccepteddefinitionandadequatemeasureof how consumers perceive an effective CJD,and there is nosystematic investigation of its consequences on consumer be-havior applicable across a broad range of consumer industries.This study aims to contribute to filling these research voids.In more detail,research is limited in at least three respects(see Table 1).First,while extant literature on customer expe-rience(management)(for a literature review,see Lemon andVerhoef 2016),customer journey management(focusing onthe composition and order of single touchpoints;e.g.,Anderlet al.2016),and experiential service design(focusing onservice blueprinting;e.g.,Patrcio et al.2011)addresses theimportance of touchpoints,it remains largely u

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