ISO 80000-1-2022 数量和单位-第1部分:概述.pdf

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Quantities and units Part 1:GeneralGrandeurs et units Partie 1:GnralitsINTERNATIONAL STANDARDISO 80000-1Second edition 2022-12Reference number ISO 80000-1:2022(E)ISO 2022iiISO 80000-1:2022(E)COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT ISO 2022All rights reserved.Unless otherwise specified,or required in the context of its implementation,no part of this publication may be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form or by any means,electronic or mechanical,including photocopying,or posting on the internet or an intranet,without prior written permission.Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address below or ISOs member body in the country of the requester.ISO copyright officeCP 401 Ch.de Blandonnet 8CH-1214 Vernier,GenevaPhone:+41 22 749 01 11Email:copyrightiso.orgWebsite:www.iso.orgPublished in Switzerland ISO 2022 All rights reserved ISO 80000-1:2022(E)Foreword.ivIntroduction.v1 Scope.12 Normative references.13Termsanddefinitions.14 Quantities.14.1 The concept of quantity.14.2 System of quantities Base quantities and derived quantities.24.3 Universal constants and empirical constants.24.4 Constant multipliers in quantity equations.34.5 International System of Quantities,ISQ.35 Dimensions.36 Units.56.1 General.56.2 Units and numerical values.56.3 Mathematical operations.56.4 Quantity equations and numerical value equations.66.5 Coherent systems of units.77 Printing rules.77.1 Symbols for quantities.77.1.1 General.77.1.2 Subscripts.77.1.3 Combination of symbols for quantities.87.1.4 Expressions for quantities.97.1.5 Expressions for dimensions.107.2 Numbers.107.2.1 General.107.2.2 Decimal sign.107.2.3 Multiplication and division.117.2.4 Error and uncertainty.127.3 Chemical elements and nuclides.137.4 Greek alphabet.14Annex A(normative)Specifictermsusedforquantities.15Annex B(normative)Rounding of numbers.19Bibliography.22iii ISO 2022 All rights reserved Contents PageISO 80000-1:2022(E)ForewordISO(the International Organization for Standardization)is a worldwide federation of national standards bodies(ISO member bodies).The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out through ISO technical committees.Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee.International organizations,governmental and non-governmental,in liaison with ISO,also take part in the work.ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission(IEC)on all matters of electrotechnical standardization.The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are described in the ISO/IEC Directives,Part 1.In particular,the different approval criteria needed for the different types of ISO documents should be noted.This document was drafted in accordance with the editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives,Part 2(see www.iso.org/directives).Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of patent rights.ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.Details of any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or on the ISO list of patent declarations received(see www.iso.org/patents).Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not constitute an endorsement.For an explanation of the voluntary nature of standards,the meaning of ISO specific terms and expressions related to conformity assessment,as well as information about ISOs adherence to the World Trade Organization(WTO)principles in the Technical Barriers to Trade(TBT),see www.iso.org/iso/foreword.html.This document was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 12,Quantities and units,in collaboration with IEC/TC 25,Quantities and units.This second edition cancels the first edition(ISO 80000-1:2009),which has been technically revised.It also incorporates the Technical Corrigendum ISO 80000-1:2009/Cor.1:2011.The main changes are as follows:More focus on concepts and terminology based on a system of quantities,particularly following the recent major revision of the International System of Units(SI)and the proposed revisions of the International vocabulary of metrology(VIM).At the same time,subclauses of previous editions of this document which essentially reproduced content from other sources particularly metrological vocabulary,descriptions of SI units and compilations of fundamental constants have been substantially removed from the present edition,in accordance with a resolution taken by ISO/TC 12 in 2020.A list of all parts in the ISO 80000 and IEC 80000 series can be found on the ISO website.Any feedback or questions on this document should be directed to the users national standards body.A complete listing of these bodies can be found at www.iso.org/members.html.iv ISO 2022 All rights reserved ISO 80000-1:2022(E)IntroductionSystems of quantities as de
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