DOE-HDBK-1110-2008-Part2.pdf

上传人:first2 文档编号:100165825 上传时间:2021-06-04 格式:PDF 页数:107 大小:213.16KB
返回 下载 相关 举报
DOE-HDBK-1110-2008-Part2.pdf_第1页
第1页 / 共107页
DOE-HDBK-1110-2008-Part2.pdf_第2页
第2页 / 共107页
DOE-HDBK-1110-2008-Part2.pdf_第3页
第3页 / 共107页
DOE-HDBK-1110-2008-Part2.pdf_第4页
第4页 / 共107页
DOE-HDBK-1110-2008-Part2.pdf_第5页
第5页 / 共107页
亲,该文档总共107页,到这儿已超出免费预览范围,如果喜欢就下载吧!
资源描述
(Part 2 of 5) ALARA Training for Technical Support Personnel Instructors Guide Coordinated and Conducted for Office of Health, Safety and Security U.S. Department of Energy DOE-HDBK-1110-2008 ii This page intentionally left blank. DOE-HDBK-1110-2008 iii Table of Contents Page DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY COURSE PLAN 1 COURSE MATERIAL . . 1 Course Goal . . 1 Target Audience. . . 1 Description. . . 1 Prerequisites . . 1 Length. . . . 2 COURSE OBJECTIVE. . . 3 Terminal Objective. . . 3 Enabling Objective. . . 3 TRAINING AIDS. . . 5 Equipment Needs. . . 5 Student Materials. . . 5 I. Module 101. 9 1. INTRODUCTION TO ALARA. 9 A. Objectives. 9 2. DEFINISTION AND PHILOSOPHY OF ALARA 9 A. ALARA. 9 B. Definition. 9 C. Discussion 10 D. Linear Nonthreshold Hypothesis. 11 E. No Fixed Numerical Criteria. 11 DOE-HDBK-1110-2008 iv F. Responsibility. 12 3. POLICIES, REGULATIONS, AND OTHER GUIDANCE. 12 A. 10 CFR 835, “Occupational Radiation Protection.” 12 B. DOE Radiological Control (RadCon) Standard. 14 C. DOE Order 5400.5. 15 D. PNL-6577. 16 4. SITE SPECIFIC ALARA DESIGN REQUIREMENTS. 17 II. Module 102. 18 1. TYPES OF RADIATION 18 A. Objectives 18 2. RADIOACTIVITY AND RADIATION. 18 A. Radioactivity 18 B. Radioactive Half-Life. 18 DOE-HDBK-1110-2008 v C. Radioactive Material 18 D. Ionizing Radiation 19 E. Particles and Photon Radiations. 19 3. TYPES OF RADIATION 19 A. Alpha Particles. 19 B. Beta Particles. 20 C. Gammas and X-Rays. 20 D. Neutron 21 4. PENETRATING ABILITY IN TISSUE. 21 A. Alphas. 21 B. Betas. 21 C. Gammas and X-Rays. 22 D. Neutrons. 22 III MODULE 103. 23 1. SELECTED TOPICS IN RADIATION PROTECTION 23 A. Objectives 23 2. RADIATION EXPOSURE MODES. 23 A. Radiation Dose. 23 B. External Dose. 24 C. Internal Dose 24 D. Whole-Body Dose 24 E. Skin Dose. 25 F. Extremity Dose. 25 3. CRUD AND OTHER RADIOACTIVE SOURCES. 25 A. Crud. 25 B. Radiation Levels from Crud.25 C. Crud Production. 26 D. Decontamination. 27 E. Reducing Crud. 27 4. AIRBORNE RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL. 28 A. Production 28 B. Radiological Protection Against Airborne Radioactivity 29 C. Derived Air Concentration (DAC). 30 D. Design Criteria. 31 E. Respirator. 31 F. Time Versus Respirator Usage. 31 5. DECONTAMINATION. 32 A. Decontamination. 32 B. Design Criteria. 32 C. Planning. 33 D. Methods. 33 E. Fixed and Removable Equipment 33 6. RADIACTIVE WASTE (RADWASTE) 33 A. Definition. 33 B. Types of Radwaste. 34 DOE-HDBK-1110-2008 vi C. Processing or Radwaste. 34 D. Disposal. 35 E. Segregation. 35 F. Mixed Waste 35 G. Methods of Collecting and Dealing with RadWaste 36 7. CONTROLLED AREAS. 36 A. Controlled Areas. 36 B. Area Designations 37 C. Entry Controls. 40 D. Contamination Controls. 40 E. Potential or Intermittent Radiological Areas. 40 8. SCATTER AND STREAMING. 41 A. Scatter. 41 B. Skyshine. 41 C. Streaming. 41 D. Dose Rates. 41 E. Exposure Control. 42 IV MODULE 104. 43 1. ALARA PRINCIPLES . 43 A. Objectives 43 B. Six Fundamental Principles. 43 C. Hierarchy of Controls. 44 2. ELIMINATE OR RECUDE THE RADIOACTIVE SOURCE. 44 A. Source Elimination. 44 B. Source Reduction. 44 3. CONTAINMENT AND CONFINEMENT 45 A. Methods to Control and Contain. 45 B. Protective Designs. 46 4. MINIMIZING TIME. 47 A. Design Factors. 47 5. MINIMIZING DISTANCE. 48 A. Dose Rate Versus Source Size. 48 B. Design Factors. 49 6. USE OF RADIATION SHIELDING. 50 A Design Factors. 50 B. Shielding Materials. 51 C. Fortuitous Shielding. 52 D. Sequence of Shielding.52 E. Concrete. 53 7. OPTIMIZATION. 53 8. SUMMARY. 53 A. Module 101 Objectives 53 B. Module 102 Objectives 54 C. Module 103 Objectives 54 D. Module 104 Objectives 55 DOE-HDBK-1110-2008 vii V. MODULE 105. 55 1. APPLICATIONS OF ALARA 55 A. Objectives 55 2. CRUD PRODUCTION AND RADIACTIVE MATERIAL DEPOSITIONS REDUCTION IN LIQUID SYSTEMS. 55 A. Reduce Crud Production. 55 B. Reduce Erosion 56 C. Reduce Corrosion Loss 56 D. Reduce Deposition. 57 3. CONTAMINATION CONTROL AND DECONTAMINATION. 58 A. Contamination Control Measures . 58 B. Equipment Decontamination. 59 VI. MODULE 106. 60 1. APPLICATION OF ALARA TO FACILITY AND SYSTEM DESIGN. 60 A. Objectives 60 2. RELIABILITY AND EQUIPMENT QUALIFICATION. 60 A. Choose Reliable Equipment 60 B. Choose Qualified Equipment. 61 3. AIRBORNE RADIOACTIVITY AND HVAC. 61 A. Essential Features.61 B. Area-Specific Requirements 63 C. Maintenance. 64 D. Monitoring and Sampling 64 4. CONTAINMENT 64 A. Containment. 64 B. Gloveboxes. 65 C. Primary Containment Penetrations 65 D. Isolated Systems. 66 5. MECHANICAL AND ELECTRICAL SYSTEMS. 66 A. Piping. 66 B. Valves. 66 C. Pumps. 66 D. Filters, Strainers Evaporators, and Ion Exchangers. 67 E. Tanks, Sumps, and Drains. 67 F. Heat Exchanges 67 6. ELECTRICAL POWER SYSTEMS. 67 VII MODULE 107. 68 1. APPLICATION OF ALARA FOR VARIOUS ENGINEERING DISCIPLINES. 68 A. Objective. 68 B. Introduction. 68 C. Civil/Structural Design Considerations. 68 2. ASSESSING RADIOLOGICAL DOSES. 69 DOE-HDBK-1110-2008 viii A. Worker and Time. 69 B. Multiple Sources. 70 C. Isolation of Areas. 70 3. ACCESS C
展开阅读全文
相关资源
猜你喜欢
相关搜索
资源标签

当前位置:首页 > 国外标准 > 美国能源部标准DOE


版权所有:www.WDFXW.net 

鲁ICP备14035066号-3